Formula for Nestling Songbirds (FoNS©): Options for 2011


  • Diane Winn PhD Avian Haven
  • Mark Finke PhD Avian Haven



FoNS, songirds, songbird diet


Formula for Nestling Songbirds (FoNS©) update for 2011.


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Author Biographies

Diane Winn PhD, Avian Haven

Diane Winn, PhD, is Executive Director of Avian Haven, a rehabilitation practice of approximately 1,000 birds per year, based in Freedom, Maine. She has published several peer–reviewed articles and given numerous conference presentations on various aspects of wild bird rehabilitation, including euthanasia, nestling diets, emaciation protocols, and caging.

Mark Finke PhD, Avian Haven

Mark Finke, PhD, has worked in the area of comparative animal nutrition for more than 20 years and has published more than 20 peer–reviewed articles on nutrition in insects, birds, and mammals. His graduate degree reflects dual majors in nutritional sciences and entomology. Mark supports several rehabilitation groups by helping them develop diets for specific species and situations.


Bhatty, R., and G. Christison. 1984. Composition and Nutritional Quality of Pea (Pisum sativum L.), Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. spp. Minor) and Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) Meals, Protein Concentrates and Isolates. Qualitas Plantarum—Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 34(1): 41–51.

Finke, M., and D. Winn. 2004a. Insects and Related Arthropods: A Nutritional Primer for Rehabilitators. Journal of Wildlife Rehabilitation. 27(3–4): 14–27.

Finke, M., and D. Winn. 2004b. Formula for Nestling Songbirds (FoNS©): Updates for 2006. Journal of Wildlife Rehabilitation. 27(3–4): 28.

Igbasan, F., and W. Guenter. 1996. The Feeding Value for Broiler Chickens of Pea Chips Derived from Milled Peas (Pisum sativum L.) During Air Cassification into Starch Fractions. Animal Feed and Science Technology. 61: 205–217.

Seage, E., E. Miller, and E. Koutsos. 2010. Feeding Trial Evaluating Mazuri® Nestling Meal Compared to FoNS© as a Diet for Nestling and Fledgling Passerines in a Rehabilitation Setting. Wildlife Rehabilitation Bulletin. 28(1): 15–23.

Winn, D. 2002a. Formula for Nestling Songbirds: Down Payment on Fitness and Survival. Journal of Wildlife Rehabilitation. 25(3): 13–18.

Winn, D. 2002b. Formula for Nestling Songbirds: Investing in Fitness and Survival. Pp. 9.55–9.63 in NWRA Principles of Wildlife Rehabilitation, 2nd edition. (A. Moore and S. Joosten, editors). National Wildlife Rehabilitators Association: St. Cloud, MN.

Winn, D., and M. Finke. 2008. Formula for Nestling Songbirds (FoNS©): Updates for 2008. Wildlife Rehabilitation Bulletin. 26(1): 19–22.



How to Cite

Winn, D., & Finke, M. (2011). Formula for Nestling Songbirds (FoNS©): Options for 2011. Wildlife Rehabilitation Bulletin, 29(1), 42–44.



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