Formula for Nestling Songbirds(FoNS ): Update for 2008


  • Diane Winn, PhD Avian Haven
  • Mark Finke, PhD Avian Haven



2008 FoNS© diet update.


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Author Biographies

Diane Winn, PhD, Avian Haven

Diane Winn is Executive Director of Avian Haven, a rehabilitation practice of approximately 1,000 birds per year, based in Freedom, Maine (Marc Payne is co-director). She has published several peer-reviewed articles, and given numerous conference presentations, on various aspects of wild bird rehabilitation, including euthanasia, nestling diets, emaciation protocols, and caging.

Mark Finke, PhD, Avian Haven

Mark Finke has worked in the area of comparative animal nutrition for more than 20 years and has published more than 20 peer-reviewed articles on nutrition in insects, birds, and mammals. His graduate degree reflects dual majors in nutritional sciences and entomology. Mark supports several rehabilitation groups by helping develop diets for specific species and situations.


Arnold, K., S. Ramsay, C. Donaldson, and A. Adam. 2007. Parental prey selection affects risk–taking behaviour and spatial learning in avian offspring. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 274(1625):2563–2569.

Finke, M. 2002. Complete nutrient composition of commercially raised invertebrates used as food for insectivores. Zoo Biology. 21(3):269–285.

Finke, M. 2004. Nutrient content of insects. In Encyclopedia of Entomology (J. Capinera, ed.). 3:47–60. Kluwer Academic Publishers: New York.

Finke, M., and D. Winn. 2004a. Insects and related arthropods: A nutritional primer for rehabilitators. Journal of Wildlife Rehabilitation. 27(3–4):14–27.

Finke, M., and D. Winn. 2004b. Formula for Nestling Songbirds (FoNS): Updates for 2006. Journal of Wildlife Rehabilitation. 27(3–4):28.

Koutsos, E., L. Tell, L. Woods, and K. Klasing. 2003. Adult cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) at maintenance are more sensitive to diets containing excess vitamin than to vitamin A–deficient diets. Journal of Nutrition. 133(6):1898–1902.

Schweigert, F., O. Ryder, W. Rambeck, and H. Zucker. 1990. The majority of the vitamin A is transported as retinyl esters in the blood of most carnivores. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. 95(4):573–78.

Winn, D. 2002a. Formula for nestling songbirds: Down payment on fitness and survival. Journal of Wildlife Rehabilitation. 25(3):13–18.

Winn, D. 2002b. Formula for Nestling Songbirds: Investing in Fitness and Survival. Pp. 9.55–9.63 in NWRA Principles of Wildlife Rehabilitation, 2nd edition. (A. Moore and S. Joosten, eds.). National Wildlife Rehabilitators Association: St. Cloud, MN.



How to Cite

Winn, D., & Finke, M. (2008). Formula for Nestling Songbirds(FoNS ): Update for 2008. Wildlife Rehabilitation Bulletin, 26(1), 17–20.



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