Formula for Nestling Songbirds (FoNS©): Update and Options for 2018


  • Diane Winn Avian Haven
  • Mark Finke Avian Haven



FoNS©, nutrition, nestling songbird diet, insect, BuNS©


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Author Biographies

Diane Winn, Avian Haven

Diane Winn is the Executive Director of Avian Haven, a rehabilitation practice of approximately 2,500 birds per year. She has published several peer–reviewed articles, and given numerous conference presentations, on various aspects of wild bird rehabilitation, including nestling diets and emaciation protocols. 

Mark Finke, Avian Haven

Mark Finke has worked in the area of comparative animal nutrition for more than 30 years and has published more than 30 peer-reviewed articles on nutrition in insects, birds, mammals, and reptiles. His graduate degree reflects dual majors in nutritional sciences and entomology. 


Finke M. D. 2002. Nutrient Composition of Commercially Raised Invertebrates Used as Food for Insectivores. Zoo Biology. 21(3): 286–293.

Finke M. D. 2013. Complete Nutrient Content of Four Species of Feeder Insects. Zoo Biology. 32(1):27–36.

Finke, M., and D. Winn. 2004. Insects and Related Arthropods: A Nutritional Primer for Rehabilitators. Journal of Wildlife Rehabilitation 27(3–4): 14–27.

Winn, D. 2002. Formula for Nestling Songbirds: Investing in Fitness and Survival. Pp. 9.55–9.63 in NWRA Principles of Wildlife Rehabilitation, 2nd edition (A. Moore and S. Joosten, editors). National Wildlife Rehabilitators Association: St. Cloud, MN.

Winn, D., and M. Finke. 2011. Formula for Nestling Songbirds (FoNS© ): Options for 2011. Wildlife Rehabilitation Bulletin, 29(1): 42–43.

Winn, D., and M. Finke. 2012. Formula for Nestling Songbirds (FoNS© ): Update for 2013. Wildlife Rehabilitation Bulletin, 30(2): 21–23.

Winn, D., and M. Finke. 2014. Formula for Nestling Songbirds (FoNS© ): Update and Options for 2015. Wildlife Rehabilitation Bulletin, 32(1): 9–10.



How to Cite

Winn, D., & Finke, M. (2017). Formula for Nestling Songbirds (FoNS©): Update and Options for 2018. Wildlife Rehabilitation Bulletin, 35(2), 37–39.



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