Evaluating the efficacy of 16 surfactants for removing petrochemicals from feathers

Authors

  • Erica A. Miller Wildlife Futures Program, Wildlife Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine; Kennett Square, PA, USA
  • Allison Ricko Knoell USA, LLC; Garnett Valley, PA, US

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.53607/wrb.v39.244

Keywords:

Surfactant, petrochemical, , oiled wildlife

Abstract

New detergents are developed, and existing products are reformulated on a regular basis. To ensure that the most effective products are used for decontaminating oiled wildlife, periodic assessment is necessary. Sixteen surfactants previously determined (Ambrose & Tegtmeier 2015) to be subjectively effective at removing oil from feathers (based on appearance and water repellency of the feather) were selected for this objective evaluation. This study used the methods developed and described in previous studies (Bryndza et al. 1991; Miller et al. 2003) to assess these 16 products. Standard quantities of feathers were uniformly oiled with a synthetic oil containing components found in many petroleum spills, then subjected to a “wash,” and rinse process with 1, 2, and 3% dilutions of each of the 16 products. The residue remaining on the washed feather samples was extracted with solvents and analyzed by gas chromatography to determine the quantities of each component present. The resulting data provide a measure of efficacy of each surfactant, allowing for recommendations regarding product use for cleaning oiled birds.

References

Ambrose A. & Tegtmeier S. 2015. A subjective evaluation of the efficacy of 32 surfactants in the removal of petrochemicals from feathers. May 2015. Proceedings, 12th International Effects of Oil on Wildlife Conference. Anchorage, AK.

Bryndza H.E., Foster J.P., McCartney J.H., Lober J.C. & Lundberg B. 1995. Methodology for determining surfactant efficacy in removal of petrochemicals from feathers. In C. Rineer-Garber (ed.): Wildlife and oil spills: response, research, and contingency planning. Pp. 69–86. Newark, DE: Tri-State Bird Rescue & Research, Inc.

Bryndza H.E., Foster J.P., McCartney J.H., Lundberg B. & Lober J.C. 1991. Surfactant efficacy in removal of petrochemicals from feathers. In L. Frink, K. Ball-Weir & C. Smith (eds.): The effects of oil on wildlife: research, rehabilitation and general concerns. Pp. 78–94. Suisun, CA: International Wildlife Rehabilitation Council.

Dein F.J. & Frink L.S. 1986. Rehabilitation of oil‑contaminated birds. In R.W. Kirk (ed.): Current veterinary therapy. Vol. IX. Pp. 719–722. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders.

Frink L. & Miller E.A. 1995. Principles of oiled bird rehabilitation. In C. Rineer-Garber (ed.): Wildlife and oil spills: response, research, and contingency planning. Pp. 61–68. Newark, DE: Tri-State Bird Rescue & Research, Inc.

Miller E., Keller J. & Bryndza H. 2006. An evaluation and comparison of some current products for the removal of petrochemicals from feathers. In K. Evans & R. Dunne (eds.): The effects of oil on wildlife: proceedings of the eighth international conference. Pp. 85–99. Newark, DE: Tri-State Bird Rescue & Research, Inc.

Miller E.A., Bryndza H., Milionis C., Meenan K. & Simmons M. 2003. An evaluation of the efficacy of eighty-six products in the removal of petrochemicals from feathers. The effects of oil on wildlife: proceedings of the sixth international conference. October 2003. Myrtle Beach, SC.

Miller E.A. & Welte S.C. 1999. Caring for oiled birds. In M.E. Fowler & R.E. Miller (eds.): Zoo & wild animal medicine: current therapy 4. Pp. 300–308. W.B. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Co.

Welte S.C., Bryndza H. & Embick J.R. 1991. Notes on health and safety concerns when handling oil contaminated wildlife. In J. White & L. Frink (eds.): The effects of oil on wildlife: research, rehabilitation and general concerns. Pp. 73–77. Suisun, CA: International Wildlife Rehabilitation Council.

Published

2022-07-14

How to Cite

Miller, E. A., & Ricko, A. (2022). Evaluating the efficacy of 16 surfactants for removing petrochemicals from feathers. Wildlife Rehabilitation Bulletin, 39(1), 9-22. https://doi.org/10.53607/wrb.v39.244

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Section

Original Articles

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