Infectious Diseases of North American Black Bears (Ursus americanus): Viral and Bacterial Pathogens (Part Two)
Keywords:Infectious disease, Ursus, black bear, sentinel, environmental health, pathogen
Black bears (Ursus americanus) serve as an important keystone species within an ecosystem, and can also serve as sentinels for environmental health. Wildlife rehabilitators, biologists, and veterinarians working with these animals should familiarize themselves with infectious diseases commonly associated with these ursids. The purpose of this article is to provide a literature review of the common viral and bacterial pathogens associated with black bears.
Aguirre, A. A., R. G. McLean, et al. 1992. Serologic survey for selected arboviruses and other potential pathogens in wildlife from Mexico. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 28(3):435–442.
Barnes, D. M., and L. L. Rogers. 1980. Clostridial myonecrosis in a black bear associated with drug administration. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 16(3):315–317.
Binninger, C. E., J. J. Beecham, et al. 1980. A serologic survey for selected infectious diseases of black bears in Idaho. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 16(3):423–430.
Cheville, N. F., D. R. McCullough, and L. R. Paulson. 1998. Brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone area. National Research Council. National Academy Press: Washington, DC
Clover, J. R., T. D. Hofstra, et al. 1989. Serologic evidence of Yersinia pestis infection in small mammals and bears from a temperate rainforest of north coastal California. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 25(1):52–60.
Collins, J. E., P. Leslie, et al. 1984. Epizootic of adenovirus infection in American black bears. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 185(11):1430–1432.
Drew, M. L., D. A. Jessup, et al. 1992. Serologic survey for brucellosis in feral swine, wild ruminants, and black bear of California, 1977 to 1989. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 28(3):355–363.
Dunbar, M. R., M. W. Cunningham, et al. 1998. Seroprevalence of selected disease agents from free–ranging black bears in Florida. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 34(3):612–619.
Farajollahi, F., N. A. Panella, et al. 2003. Serologic evidence of West Nile virus infection in black bears (Ursus americanus) from New Jersey. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 39(4):894–896.
Hassard, T. H. 1991. Estimation. Pp. 38–51 in Understanding Biostatistics. T. H. Hassard (ed). Mosby Year Book: St. Louis, MO.
Kazmierczak, J. J., T. E. Amundson, et al. 1988. Borreliosis in free–ranging black bears from Wisconsin. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 24(2):366– 368.
Pacha, R. E., G. W. Clark, et al. 1987. Small rodents and other mammals associated with mountain meadows as reservoirs of Giardia spp. and Campylobacter spp. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 53(7):1574–1579.
Pirtle, E. C., M. E. Roelke, et al. 1986. Antibodies against pseudorabies virus in the serum of a Florida black bear cub. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 189(9):1164.
Pursell, A. R., B. P. Stuart, et al. 1983. Isolation of an adenovirus from black bear cubs. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 19(3):269–271.
Ruppanner, R., D. A. Jessup, et al. 1982. Serologic survey for certain zoonotic diseases in black bears in California. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 181(11):1288–1291.
Schultze, A. E., R. K. Maes, et al. 1986. Pseudorabies and volvulus in a black bear. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 189(9):1165–1166.
Smith, C. R., B. C. Nelson, et al. 1984. The use of wild carnivore serology in determining patterns of plague activity in rodents in California. Pp. 71–76 in Proceedings Eleventh Vertebrate Pest Conference.
van Belle, G., and S. P. Millard. 1998. STRUTS: Statistical Rules Of Thumb. Pp. 3–14. < www.nrcse.washington.edu >. Seattle, WA.
van der Leek, M. L., H. N. Becker, et al. 1993. Prevalence of pseudorabies (Aujeszky’s disease) virus antibodies in feral swine in Florida. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 29(3):403–409.
Walroth, R., N. Brown, et al. 1996. Rabid black bears in Ontario. Canadian Veterinary Journal. 37(8):492.
Wandeler, A. I., and G. A. Casey. 1993. Eastern Canada rabies diagnoses, January 1–June 30, 1992. Canadian Veterinary Journal. 34:123.
Whetstone, C. A., H. Draayer, et al. 1988. Characterization of canine adenovirus type 1 isolated from American black bears. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 49(6):778–780.
Zarnke, R. L., and T. M. Yuill. 1981. Serologic survey for selected microbial agents in mammals from Alberta, 1976. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 17(3):453–461.
Zarnke, R. L. 1983. Serologic survey for selected microbial pathogens in Alaskan wildlife. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 19(4):324–329.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2005 D. Zimmermann DVM, MS, Mark A. Mitchell DVM, MS, PhD
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
The copyright for articles in this journal is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the Wildlife Rehabilitation Bulletin and NWRA. Articles published as open-access in this journal are free to use and share with proper attribution in educational and other non-commercial purposes. To obtain reprint permission for articles that are not open access, please contact the journal editor.