Keywords:Baylisascaris, procyonis, roundworm, raccoon, larva, migrans, zoonotic
Baylisascaris procyonis or raccoon roundworm is present in over 90 percent of raccoons in some North American populations. While asymptomatic in raccoons, this parasite may affect other wildlife, domestic animals, and humans and has devastating health implications. This article provides information on B. procyonis and is intended to educate both wildlife rehabilitators and the public about potential risks associated with this disease.
Acha, P. N., and B. Szyfres. 2003. Baylisascaris. Pp. 241–44 in Zoonoses and Communicable Diseases Common to Man and Animals. Publication No. 580, Volume 3. Parasitoses, 3rd edition. Pan American Health Organization. Scientific and Technical: Washington, DC.
Baylisascaris. [Factsheet on the Internet]. The Center for Food Animal Security & Public Health, Iowa State University. [Cited 21 June 2016]. Available from <http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/baylisascariasis.pdf>.
Larva Migrans. [Factsheet on the Internet]. The Center for Food Animal Security & Public Health, Iowa State University. [Cited 21 June 2016]. Available from <http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/larva_migrans.pdf>.
Bowman, D. D. 2000. Baylisascaris procyonis in Dogs. Companion and Exotic Animal Parasitology (D. D. Bowman, editor). [Cited 21 June, 2016]. Available from <http://www.2ndchance.info/baylisascaris–Bowman2000BaylisascarisInDogs.pdf>.
Bauer C. 2013. Baylisascariosis—Infections of Animals and Humans with ‘Unusual’ Roundworms. Veterinary Parasitology. 193(4): 404–412.
Parasites—Baylisascaris Infection. [updated 11 October, 2012] Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Parasitic Diseases. Available from <http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/baylisascaris/>.
Eberhard, M. L., E. K. Nace, K. Y. Won, G. A. Punkosdy, H. S. Bishop, and S. P. Johnstone. 2003. Baylisascaris procyonis in the Metropolitan Atlanta Area. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 9(12): 1636–37.
Graeff–Teixeira, C., A. L. Morassutti, and K. R. Kazacos. 2016. Update on Baylisascariasis, A Highly Pathogenic Zoonotic Infection. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 29(2): 375–399.
Kazacos, K. R. 2001. Baylisascaris procyonis and Related Species. Pp. 301–341 in Parasitic Diseases of Wild Mammals, 2nd edition. (W. M. Samuel, M. J. Pybus, and A. A. Kocan, editors). Iowa State University Press: Ames, IA.
Kazacos K. R., L. A. Jelicks, and H. B. Tanowitz. 2013. Baylisascaris Larva Migrans. Handbook of Clinical Neurology. 114: 251–262.
Moertel, C. L., K. R. Kazacos, J. H. Butterfield, H. Kita, J. Watterson, and G. J. Gleich. 2001. Eosinophil–associated Inflammation and Elaboration of Eosinophil–derived Proteins in 2 Children with Raccoon Roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) Encephalitis. Pediatrics. 108(5): e93.
Park, S. Y., C. Glaser, W. J. Murray, K. R. Kazacos, H. A. Rowley, D. R. Fredrick, and N. Bass. 2000. Raccoon Roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) Encephalitis: Case Report and Field Investigation. Pediatrics. 106(4): e56.
Page, L. K., S. D. Gehrt, and N. P. Robinson. 2008. Land–use Effects on Prevalence of Raccoon Roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis). Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 44(3): 594–99.
Roussere, G. P., W. J. Murray, C. B. Raudenbush, M. K. Kutilik, D. J. Levee, and K. R. Kazacos. 2003. Raccoon Roundworm Eggs near Homes and Risk for Larva Migrans Disease, California Communities. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 9(12): 1511–1522.
Sorvillo F., L. R. Ash, O. G. W. Berlin, J. Yatabe, C. Degiorgio, and S. A. Morse. 2002. Baylisascaris procyonis: An Emerging Helminthic Zoonosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 8(4): 355–358.
Stringfield, C. E. 2007. Baylisascaris Neural Larva Migrans in Zoo Animals. In Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Current Therapy, Volume 6. (M. E. Fowler and R. E. Miller, editors). 2007: 284–88.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Wildlife Center of Virginia
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
The copyright for articles in this journal is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the Wildlife Rehabilitation Bulletin and NWRA. Articles published as open-access in this journal are free to use and share with proper attribution in educational and other non-commercial purposes. To obtain reprint permission for articles that are not open access, please contact the journal editor.