Rehabilitation of a Northern Elephant Seal Pup (Mirounga angustirostris) with Kyphosis
Keywords:Marine mammal, Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), kyphosis, thoracic vertebrae, Cobb angle
A juvenile Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) with kyphosis was rehabilitated and released. Radiographs revealed a divergence of the thoracic vertebrae by an angle of 66.72 degrees. The pup was treated with supportive care and released back into the wild. Diagnostic techniques of marine mammal skeletal abnormalities and their rehabilitation are discussed.
Aikawa, T., et al. 2007. Vertebral Stabilization Using Positively Threaded Profile Pins and Polymethylmethacrylate with or Without Laminectomy, for Spinal Canal Stenosis and Vertebral Instability Caused by Congenital Thoracic Vertebral Anomalies. Veterinary Surgery. 36(5): 432–441.
Anderson, C. E. Northern Elephant Seal (Mirounga angustirostris) Lumbar Spine: Normal Radiographic Anatomy and Common Radiographic Anomalies. IAAAM Conference Proceedings. Mirage Hotel and Casino, Las Vegas, NV. May 7–11, 2011.
Bonnell, M. L. and R. K. Selander. 1974. Elephant Seals: Genetic Variation and Near Extinction. Science. 184(4139): 908–909.
Briggs, A. M., T. V. Wrigley, E. A. Tully, P. E. Adams, A. M. Greig, and K. L. Bennell. 2007. Radiographic Measures of Thoracic Kyphosis in Osteoporosis: Cobb and Vertebral Centroid Angles. Skeletal Radiology. 36: 761–767.
Carretta, J. V., E. M. Oleson, J. Baker, D. W. Weller, A. R. Lang, K. A. Forney, M. M. Muto, B. Hanson, A. J. Orr, H. Huber, M. S. Lowry, J. Barlow, J. E. Moore, D. Lynch, L. Carswell, and R. L. Brownell. 2015. U.S. Pacific Marine Mammal Stock Assessments: 2015. [Memorandum]. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: USA.
Charalambous, M., N. D. Jeffery, P. M. Smith, R. Goncalves, A. Barker, G. Hayes, E. Ives, and A. E. Vanhaesebrouck. 2014. Surgical Treatment of Dorsal Hemivertebrae Associated with Kyphosis by Spinal Segmental Stabilization, with or Without Decompression. The Veterinary Journal. 202(2): 267–273.
Colegrove, K. M., D. J. Greig, and F. M. D. Gulland. 2005. Causes of Live Strandings of Northern Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris) and Pacific Harbor Seals (Phoca virulina) along the Central California Coast, 1992–2001. Aquatic Mammals. 41(1): 1–10.
Crocker, D. E., D. S. Houser, and P. M. Webb. 2012. Impact of Body Reserves on Energy Expenditure, Water Flux, and Mating Success in Breeding Male Northern Elephant Seals. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: Ecological and Evolutionary Approaches. 85(1): 11–20.
Dierauf, L. A. and F. M. D. Gulland. 2001. CRC Handbook of Marine Mammal Medicine, 2nd edition. CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL.
Harrison, D. E., R. Cailliet, D. D. Harrison, T. J. Janik, and B. Holland. 2001. Reliability of Centroid, Cobb and Harrison Posterior Tangent Methods: Which to Choose for Analysis of Thoracic Kyphosis. Spine. 26(11): 227–234.
Harting, A. L., J. D. Baker, and T. C. Johanos. 2007. Reproductive Patterns of the Hawaiian Monk Seal. Marine Mammal Science. 23(3): 553–573.
Jeffery, N. D., P. M. Smith, and C. E. Talbot. 2007. Imaging Findings and Surgical Treatment of Hemivertebrae in Three Dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 230(4): 532–536.
Moissonnier, P., P. Gossot, and S. Scotti. 2011. Thoracic Kyphosis Associated with Hemivertebrae. Veterinary Surgery. 40(8): 1029–1032.
NMFS. National Marine Fisheries Service [website]. 2011. FAQs: Whale, Dolphin, Seal and Sea Lion (Marine Mammal) Strandings. [cited 2011 June 28] Available from: <http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/health/faq.htm>.
Thomas, B., J. D. Holland, and E. O. Minot. 2011. Wildlife Tracking Technology Options and Cost Considerations. Wildlife Research. 38(8): 653–663.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2017 National Wildlife Rehabilitators Association (NWRA)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
The copyright for articles in this journal is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the Wildlife Rehabilitation Bulletin and NWRA. Articles published as open-access in this journal are free to use and share with proper attribution in educational and other non-commercial purposes. To obtain reprint permission for articles that are not open access, please contact the journal editor.